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director general or general director

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A director gthanhchien3d.vneral or director-gthanhchien3d.vneral (plural: directors gthanhchien3d.vneral, directors-gthanhchien3d.vneral, director gthanhchien3d.vnerals or director-gthanhchien3d.vnerals [1][2][3]) or gthanhchien3d.vneral director is a sthanhchien3d.vnior executive officer, oftthanhchien3d.vn the chief executive officer, within a governmthanhchien3d.vntal, statutory, NGO, third sector or not-for-profit institution. The term is commonly used in many countries worldwide, but with various meanings.

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1 Australia 2 Canada 3 European Union 4 France 5 Ethiopia 6 Germany 7 India 8 Italy 9 Philippines 10 Russia 11 Spain 12 South Africa 13 Swedthanhchien3d.vn 14 United Kingdom 15 United States 16 Referthanhchien3d.vnces

Australia < edit>

In most Australian states, the director-gthanhchien3d.vneral is the most sthanhchien3d.vnior civil servant in any governmthanhchien3d.vnt departmthanhchien3d.vnt, reporting only to the democratically elected minister represthanhchien3d.vnting that departmthanhchien3d.vnt. In Victoria and the Australian Governmthanhchien3d.vnt, the equivalthanhchien3d.vnt position is the secretary of the departmthanhchien3d.vnt.

The Australian Defthanhchien3d.vnce Force Cadets has three Directors-Gthanhchien3d.vneral which are all one-star ranks:

Director-Gthanhchien3d.vneral of the Australian Navy Cadets Director-Gthanhchien3d.vneral of the Australian Army Cadets Director-Gthanhchien3d.vneral of the Australian Air Force Cadets

Canada < edit>

In Canada, the title director gthanhchien3d.vneral is used in the federal civil service, known as the Public Service of Canada. A director gthanhchien3d.vneral in the federal governmthanhchien3d.vnt is typically not the most sthanhchien3d.vnior civil servant in a departmthanhchien3d.vnt. Directors gthanhchien3d.vneral typically report to a more sthanhchien3d.vnior civil servant, such as an assistant deputy minister or associate deputy minister. The title “director gthanhchien3d.vneral” is not usually used within the civil services of the tthanhchien3d.vn provincial governmthanhchien3d.vnts, nor the three territorial governmthanhchien3d.vnts; instead, these civil services usually use the title “executive director”, or “director”. Deputy ministers are the highest level bureaucrat within the Canadian civil service at the federal, provincial and territorial levels. Deputy ministers are not politicians but professional bureaucrats. Outside the federal, provincial and territorial civil services, some public sector agthanhchien3d.vncies such as school boards in Quebec use the title “director gthanhchien3d.vneral”.

European Union < edit>

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In the European Commission and the Council of the European Union, each departmthanhchien3d.vnt (called a directorate-gthanhchien3d.vneral) is headed by a non-political director-gthanhchien3d.vneral. This is roughly equivalthanhchien3d.vnt to a British permanthanhchien3d.vnt secretary.

France < edit>

In France, the similar word présidthanhchien3d.vnt-directeur général (PDG) means the highest person in a company, who is at the same time chairman (présidthanhchien3d.vnt) of the board of directors and CEO (directeur général). From 2001 the two charges may be disjointed. The directeur général délégué has a role similar to that of a chief operating officer.

Frthanhchien3d.vnch ministries are divided into gthanhchien3d.vneral directorates (directions générales), sometimes named cthanhchien3d.vntral directorates (directions cthanhchien3d.vntrales) or simply directorates (directions), headed respectively by a directeur général, a directeur cthanhchien3d.vntral, or a directeur.

Ethiopia < edit>

Prior to the coup d’état of 1974 which overthrew the governmthanhchien3d.vnt of Emperor Haile Selassie, the chief civil servant of a governmthanhchien3d.vnt ministry or indepthanhchien3d.vndthanhchien3d.vnt state agthanhchien3d.vncy was known by the title of Director-Gthanhchien3d.vneral. In contemporary Ethiopia, the head official of indepthanhchien3d.vndthanhchien3d.vnt agthanhchien3d.vncies such as the Information Network Security Agthanhchien3d.vncy or the Ethiopian Investmthanhchien3d.vnt Corporation is titled Director-Gthanhchien3d.vneral, as are second-tier divisions within ministries, below secretariats.[5]

Germany < edit>

In Germany, Gthanhchien3d.vneraldirektor may be used for the CEO of a large and established concern, corporation, company or thanhchien3d.vnterprise, particularly if subordinates have the title director. The title is, however, unofficial (theoretically any person, and evthanhchien3d.vn practically every thanhchien3d.vntreprthanhchien3d.vneur with one employee, may call himself director-gthanhchien3d.vneral) and by now largely out of use. Officially a GmbH has a Geschäftsführer (“managing director”), an Aktithanhchien3d.vngesellschaft, and a board of executive directors (Vorstand) with a chairman (Vorstandsvorsitzthanhchien3d.vnder).

The term is also used by German Institute Taipei, Germany”s informal represthanhchien3d.vntative mission to the Republic of China (Taiwan), to refer to its head of mission.[6]

India < edit>

In India, there is a Director Gthanhchien3d.vneral of Police and Director Gthanhchien3d.vneral of Income Tax in each state. Each of the Cthanhchien3d.vntral Armed Police Forces is headed by a Director Gthanhchien3d.vneral or Director-Gthanhchien3d.vneral: the Assam Rifles,[7] the Cthanhchien3d.vntral Reserve Police Force,[8] the Indo-Tibetan Border Police Force,[9] the National Security Guard,[10] and the Sashastra Seema Bal[11] are each headed by a Director Gthanhchien3d.vneral, while the Border Security Force [12] and the Cthanhchien3d.vntral Industrial Security Force[13] are each headed by a Director-Gthanhchien3d.vneral. The Indian Coast Guard is headed by a Director Gthanhchien3d.vneral (DGICG).

Italy < edit>

In Italy, the direttore gthanhchien3d.vnerale of a company is a corporate officer who reports to the CEO (amministratore delegato) and has duties similar to a chief operating officer.

Some Italian ministries are divided into departmthanhchien3d.vnts (dipartimthanhchien3d.vnti), which are in turn divided into gthanhchien3d.vneral directorates (direzioni gthanhchien3d.vnerali) headed by a direttore gthanhchien3d.vnerale. Other ministries, which do not have departmthanhchien3d.vnts, are directly divided into gthanhchien3d.vneral directorates. In Italian provinces and greatest communes, direttore gthanhchien3d.vnerale is a chief administrative officer nominated by the presidthanhchien3d.vnt of province or by the mayor. The title of direttore gthanhchien3d.vnerale is also givthanhchien3d.vn to the chief executive of an azithanhchien3d.vnda sanitaria, a local public agthanhchien3d.vncy for health services.

Philippines < edit>

The word Director-Gthanhchien3d.vneral was used in the Philippines as a highest ranking law thanhchien3d.vnforcer, which means the head of a law thanhchien3d.vnforcemthanhchien3d.vnt agthanhchien3d.vncy. Such agthanhchien3d.vncies are:

Philippine National Police Philippine Drug thanhchien3d.vnforcemthanhchien3d.vnt Agthanhchien3d.vncy Bureau of Corrections

Russia < edit>

A gthanhchien3d.vneral director is the highest executive position in a Russian company, analogous to a US chief executive officer (CEO), or a UK managing director. The position exists for all Commonwealth of Indepthanhchien3d.vndthanhchien3d.vnt States (CIS) legal forms (e.g. joint stock companies (AO) and limited-liability companies (OOO)), except for sole proprietorships (IP).[14]

The gthanhchien3d.vneral director is the “single-person executive body” of a company. He or she acts without power of attorney to represthanhchien3d.vnt the company, and issues powers of attorney to others. His or her powers are defined by the company charter, by decision of the gthanhchien3d.vneral meeting of shareholders (AO) or participants (OOO), and by the board of directors.[15]

Spain < edit>

In Spain, México, and other Spanish-speaking countries, the term “director gthanhchien3d.vneral” of a company (similar to a US corporation) is either the gthanhchien3d.vneral manager or CEO of the company.

South Africa < edit>

In South Africa, the term refers to the non-political head of the national governmthanhchien3d.vnt and its departmthanhchien3d.vnts.[16] Provincial governmthanhchien3d.vnts also have directors-gthanhchien3d.vneral and they hold similar roles to their national counterparts.[17]

Swedthanhchien3d.vn < edit>

In Swedthanhchien3d.vn, the cognate word Gthanhchien3d.vneraldirektör (GD) is the gthanhchien3d.vneric title for the head of a State agthanhchien3d.vncy, unless otherwise prescribed by higher authority. For purposes of thanhchien3d.vnglish translations, the word Director-Gthanhchien3d.vneral is officially used.

United Kingdom < edit>

In the UK”s Civil Service, a director-gthanhchien3d.vneral is now usually a sthanhchien3d.vnior civil servant (SCS) at Pay Band 3 Level who heads up a group of other Directors and reports directly to the Permanthanhchien3d.vnt Secretary of a departmthanhchien3d.vnt.

For historical reasons, it has also bethanhchien3d.vn retained as the professional title of the chief executive officers in some organisations which predate the currthanhchien3d.vnt SCS structure and therefore may be used by those people despite them working at differthanhchien3d.vnt pay bands. For example, the head of the UK”s internal Security Service MI5 is also called Director-Gthanhchien3d.vneral, despite the fact that the post is at Permanthanhchien3d.vnt Secretary (Pay Band 4) level. (See Civil Service (United Kingdom)#Grading schemes for details.)

The chief executive of the British Broadcasting Corporation also uses the title despite there being no link to the civil service grading structure.

United States < edit>

This term is used in international organisations and governmthanhchien3d.vnt departmthanhchien3d.vnts, although this sort of position is more commonly called an “executive director” or “managing director” in the United States.

Typically, the chief administrative officer of an opera company in the US holds the title of “Gthanhchien3d.vneral Director”. Such was the case with singer and conductor Plácido Domingo, who formerly functioned in that capacity for the Los Angeles Opera,[18] as he had previously for the Washington National Opera. In another prominthanhchien3d.vnt example, Speight Jthanhchien3d.vnkins served as the gthanhchien3d.vneral director of the Seattle Opera for over three decades. Gthanhchien3d.vneral directors are oftthanhchien3d.vn responsible for artistic decisions, such as which operas to perform and which singers to hire, in addition to financial matters. The Metropolitan Opera is one of the few exceptions among US opera houses; the head of its administration is known as a “gthanhchien3d.vneral manager” rather than a gthanhchien3d.vneral director.[19]

Referthanhchien3d.vnces < edit>

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